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Migration is a way to move from one place to another in order to live and work. Movement of people from their home to another city, state or country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is called migration. Migration from rural areas to urban areas has increased in past few years in India.

Causes of Migration:

Nowadays, many people decide to migrate to have a better life. Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Except this, lack of opportunities, better education, construction of dams, globalization, natural disaster (flood and drought) and sometimes crop failure forced villagers to migrate to cities.


People who move from one place to another in search of work or shelter are called migrants.  Most of the times migrants people are not skilled or educated therefore they usually employed as daily wagers (workers who are paid at the end of each day, for their services). Daily wagers do not get enough money for the survival of their families and suffering from many problems such as they do not have enough food to eat, sanitation, hygiene, a proper place to live etc.

Impacts of Migration:

Migration is becoming a very important subject for the life of cities. Many opportunities and attraction of big cities pull large numbers of people to big cities. Migration can have positive as well as negative effects on the life of the migrants.

1. Positive Impact:

  • Unemployment is reduced and people get better job opportunities.
  • Migration helps in improving the quality of life of people.
  • It helps to improve social life of people as they learn about new culture, customs, and languages which helps to improve brotherhood among people.
  • Migration of skilled workers leads to a greater economic growth of the region.
  • Children get better opportunities for higher education.
  • The population density is reduced and the birth rate decreases.

2. Negative Impact:

  • The loss of a person from rural areas, impact on the level of output and development of rural areas.
  • The influx of workers in urban areas increases competition for the job, houses, school facilities etc.
  • Having large population puts too much pressure on natural resources, amenities and services.
  • It is difficult for a villager to survive in urban areas because in urban areas there is no natural environment and pure air. They have to pay for each and everything.
  • Migration changes the population of a place, therefore, the distribution of the population is uneven in India.
  • Many migrants are completely illiterate and uneducated, therefore, they are not only unfit for most jobs, but also lack basic knowledge and life skills.
  • Poverty makes them unable to live a normal and healthy life.
  • Children growing up in poverty have no access to proper nutrition, education or health.
  • Migration increased the slum areas in cities which increase many problems such as unhygienic conditions, crime, pollution etc.
  • Sometimes migrants are exploited.
  • Migration is one of the main causes of increasing nuclear family where children grow up without a wider family circle.




  1. https://www.toppr.com/guides/evs/no-place-for-us/migration-and-its-effects/
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Migration



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