TELEVISION

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TELEVISION

Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program (“TV show”), or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment and news.

Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, and television sets became commonplace in homes, businesses, and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion.[1] In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in the US and most other developed countries. The availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, and cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule. For many reasons, especially the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions greatly increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television (SDTV) (576i, with 576 interlaced lines of resolution and 480i) to high-definition television (HDTV), which provides a resolution that is substantially higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 1080i and 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer, Hulu, Roku and Chromecast.

In 2013, 79% of the world’s households owned a television set.[2] The replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube (CRT) screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs (both fluorescent-backlit and LED), OLED displays, and plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel, mainly LEDs. Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, plasma, and even fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s.[3][4] In the near future, LEDs are expected to be gradually replaced by OLEDs.[5] Also, major manufacturers have announced that they will increasingly produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s.[6][7][8] Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s.

Television signals were initially distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet. Until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is correctly called a video monitor rather than a television.


It is hard to avoid television if you are a kid. People in the house are usually tuned in to TV – siblings as well as parents. In some homes, the television is perpetually “on” even without anyone watching. It is common for parents and caregivers to use TV as a substitute babysitter. Also, many parents buy videos that they think can make their kids smart. But how does watching TV really affect children?

The bad news is, the majority of experts think that a TV/video-driven culture has bad effects on kids – and may prevent kids from being smart. They cite the following:

TV provides no educational benefits for a child under age 2. Worse, it steals time for activities that actually develop her brain, like interacting with other people and playing. A child learns a lot more efficiently from real interaction – with people and things, rather than things she sees on a video screen.
TV viewing takes away the time that your child needs to develop important skills like language, creativity, motor, and social skills. These skills are developed in the kids’ first two years (a critical time for brain development) through play, exploration, and conversation. Your kid’s language skills, for example, do not improve by passively listening to the TV. It is developed by interacting with people, when talking and listening is used in the context of real life.
TV viewing numbs your kid’s mind as it prevents your child from exercising initiative, being intellectually challenged, thinking analytically, and using his imagination.
TV viewing takes away time from reading and improving reading skills through practice (Comstock, 1991). Kids watching cartoons and entertainment television during pre-school years have poorer pre-reading skills at age 5 (Macbeth, 1996). Also, kids who watch entertainment TV are also less likely to read books and other print media (Wright & Huston, 1995).
According to Speech and language expert Dr. Sally Ward, 20 years of research show that kids who are bombarded by background TV noise in their homes have trouble paying attention to voices when there is also background noise.
Kids who watch a lot of TV have trouble paying attention to teachers because they are accustomed to the fast-paced visual stimulation on TV. Kids who watch TV more than they talk to their family have a difficult time adjusting from being visual learners to aural learners (learning by listening). They also have shorter attention spans.
School kids who watch too much TV also tend to work less on their homework. When doing homework with TV on the background, kids tend to retain less skill and information. When they lose sleep because of TV, they become less alert during the day, and this results in poor school performance.
A long-term study conducted by the Millennium Cohort Study and published in 2013 found that children who watched more than 3 hours of television, videos, or DVDs a day had a higher chance of conduct problems, emotional symptoms and relationship problems by age 7 than children who did not. Notably, they did not find the same problem with children who played video games for the same amount of time.
TV exposes your kid to negative influences, and promotes negative behavior. TV shows and commercials usually show violence, alcohol, drug use and sex in a positive light. The mind of your kid is like clay. It forms early impressions on what it sees, and these early impressions determine how he sees the world and affect his grown-up behavior. For instance, twenty years of research has shown that children who are more exposed to media violence behave more aggressively as kids and when they are older. They are taught by TV that violence is the way to resolve conflict – as when a TV hero beats up a bad guy to subdue him.
Kids who watch too much TV are usually overweight, according to the American Medical Association. Kids often snack on junk food while watching TV. Children tend to ‘tune out’ and don’t notice when they are full when eating in front of TV. They are also influenced by commercials to consume unhealthy food. Also, they are not running, jumping, or doing activities that burn calories and increase metabolism. Obese kids, unless they change their habits, tend to be obese when they become adults. A recent study confirms this finding, suggesting that even just an hour of TV is associated with childhood obesity.
Too much watching TV as a young adult, especially when combined with not much exercise, may be linked to lower brain functioning even before one reaches middle age, according to a 2015 sturdy from the Northern California Institute for Research and Education.
Researchers from the University of Sydney report a link between total screen time and retinal artery width in children. Kids with lots of screen time were found to have narrow artery in their eyes, which may indicate heart risk.

A 2014 study published in the International Journal of Cardiology suggests that children aged 2 to 10 who watch TV for more than two hours a day is 30% more likely to be at risk for blood pressure compared to those who spend less time in front of TV. Lack of physical activity increased the risk even more – by 50%. The lead researcher Dr Augusto Cesar de Moraes, from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, warned that the condition can cause cardiovascular problems later in life. The findings are consistent with an earlier 2009 study.

TVwatching also affects a child’s health and athletic ability. The more television a child watches, even in the first years of life, the more likely he is to be obese and less muscularly fit, according to a study by the University of Montreal. Even though your kid does not aspire to be a football star, his athletic abilities are important not only for physical health, but predicting how physically active he will be as an adult.

Everyhourly increase in daily television watching from two and a half years old is also associated with bullying by classmates, and physical prowess at kindergarten, said Professor Linda Pagani of the University of Montreal and the CHU Sainte-Justine children’s hospital.

Some experts, however, believe that TV is not all that bad. They qualify though that viewing TV can be good if it is done in moderation, and if the program being watched is selected:

Some TV shows can educate, inform and inspire. It can be more effective than books or audiotapes in teaching your kid about processes like how a plant grows or how to bake a cake.
Studies show that kids who watch educational and non-violent children’s shows do better on reading and math tests than those who do not watch these programs.
Kids who watch informative and educational shows as preschoolers tend to watch more informative and educational shows when they get older. They use TV effectively as a complement to school learning. On the other hand, kids who watch more entertainment program watch fewer informative programs as they get older (Macbeth, 1996).
Preschoolers who viewed educational programs tend to have higher grades, are less aggressive and value their studies more when they reach high school, according to a long-term study (Anderson, et. al, 2001).
Scientists from the University of Siena found that children experience a soothing, painkilling effect by watching cartoons. So perhaps, a little entertainment TV can be a source of relief to kids who are stressed or are in pain.


Finally, think about what your child could be doing if he’s not watching TV. It would be great if the alternative is to read a book, engage in outdoor play, or having an intelligent talk with you. But if the alternative is simply for him to sit around and do nothing, whine about being bored, or start a fight or a conflict, then letting your child watch TV is a better option.

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