urbanization 1

Urbanization :-

Urbanization is a process whereby populations move from rural to urban area, enabling cities and towns to grow. It can also be termed as the progressive increase of the number of people living in towns and cities. It is highly influenced by the notion that cities and towns have achieved better economic, political, and social mileages compared to the rural areas.

Accordingly, urbanization is very common in developing and developed worlds as more and more people have the tendency of moving closer to towns and cities to acquire “privileged” social and economic services as well as benefits. These include social and economic advantages such as better education, health care, sanitation, housing, business opportunities, and transportation.

Majority of people move to cities and towns because they view rural areas as places with hardship and backward/primitive lifestyle. Therefore, as populations move to more developed areas (towns and cities) the immediate outcome is urbanization. This normally contributes to the development of land for use in commercial properties, social and economic support institutions, transportation, and residential buildings. Eventually, these activities raise several urbanization issues.

i. Industrialization:

Industrialization is a major cause of urbanization. It has expanded the employment opportunities. Rural people have migrated to cities on account of better employment opportunities.

ii. Social factors:

Many social factors such as attraction of cities, better standard of living, better educational facilities, need for status also induce people to migrate to cities.

iii. Employment opportunities:

In rural sector people have to depend mainly on agriculture for their livelihood. But Indian agriculture is depending on monsoon. In drought situations or natural calamities, rural people have to migrate to cities.

iv. Modernization:

Urban areas are characterized by sophisticated technology better infrastructure, communication, medical facilities, etc. People feel that they can lead a comfortable life in cities and migrate to cities.

Rural urban transformation:

It is an interesting aspect that not only cities are growing in number but rural community is adopting urban culture, no longer rural communities are retaining their unique rural culture. Rural people are following the material culture of urban people. Urban rural transformation can be observed in the following areas.

Spread of education:

The literacy rate has increased among the rural people. They have become more modernised.

Effect of Urbanisation:

With a high rate of urbanization significant changes have taken place. The effect of urbanisation can be summed up as follows:

Positive effect:

  1. Migration of rural people to urban areas.
  2. Employment opportunities in urban centres.
  3.  Transport and communication facilities .
  4. Educational facilities.
  5. Increase in the standard of living.


Urbanization can yield positive effects if it takes place up to a desirable limit. Extensive urbanisation or indiscriminate growth of cities may result in adverse effects. They may be as follows:

1.Problem of over population:

Concentration of population is a major problem of cities. It has resulted in accommodation problem, growth of slums etc.

2.Disintegration of Joint family:

Joint family can’t be maintained in cities on account of high cost of living: People prefer to live in the nuclear type of families.

3. Cost of living:

High cost of living is a major problem of cities. In Metro cities like Mumbai, Bangalore etc. it is very difficult for lower income groups to maintain a decent standard of living.

4.Increase in Crime rates:

Urban centres are known for high rate of crimes. Theft, Dacoity, Murder, Cheating, Pick pocketing, rape etc. are common in urban centres.

5.Impersonal relations:

Urban centres are characterised by highly secondary relations. The concept of neighbourhood, community life are almost absent in cities. Urban life is highly monotonous. This may have an adverse psychological effect on individuals. People are often self centred and they have no concern for the fellow human beings.

6.Problem of Pollution:

In industrialized cities pollution is a major problems. It may be caused by industries or by excessive movement of vehicles.

7. Stress:

Urban life is characterised by stress which may even strain family relations. In cities employment of women is almost inevitable to meet the increasing cost of living. Changing role of women in the family creates stress in the family which may result in divorce or strained relations.

Thus urbanisation has its own merits and de-merits. Urbanization can’t be avoided. But the negative effect of urbanization can be minimised.




  1. https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-solutions-urbanization.php


  1. https://www.britannica.com/topic/urbanization
  2. https://www.conservationinstitute.org › Conservation

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