Water Transport

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Water Transport

Water transports defined as the process of moving people, freight and mails by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal and river or by other types of water transportation. Water transport is an important mode of transport; it is the cheapest means of transporting bulky and perishable goods over long distances. This mode of transportation is primarily used for the carriage of people, perishable andnon-perishablegoods which is generally referred to as cargo.

Water vehicles: water vehicles are suitable for long distance travel, commuting, cruising, racing and off-road riding. There are numerous examples of water vehicles which include:

Motor boat, cargo ship, speedboat, sailboat, yacht, ferry, canoe, raft boat, battleship, cruise ship, jet ski, wind surfer, river boat, submarine, and tug boat etc.

Water transport can be undertaken either along inland rivers and canals or across oceans. This distinction is pertinent since the two types have different backgrounds and vary in importance. Rivers, if naturally navigable, have always been used for transport for many years ago, but only during the last two hundred years have canals been specially constructed on a large scale (although both Egypt and China do have canals dating back more than 2000 year). Britain pioneered inland water transport but now has little use for it, owing amongst other factors to the narrowness and shortness of her canals.

Up to the middle of last century, ocean transport was almost entirely dependent upon sailing craft and journeys were consequently slow and laborious. Ships too were unsophisticated and could be divided merely into two groups: warship and merchantmen. Much has changed since then. Coal powered, subsequently oil-powered vessels were introduced and ships became more specialized in function. Apart from liners (for passengers), merchant shipping now comprises of cargo-liners including containers ships, (bulk ore carriers), tramps, coastal craft and tankers. Sizes too have increased especially for oil tankers which today carry as much as 500,000t dead weight.

Types of Water Transport

  1. Inland watertransport
  2. Ocean watertransport

Inland Water Transport

Inland water transportis the system of transport through all navigable rivers, lakes and man-made canals. Many large rivers in different parts of the world are used by ships and barges for transportation; the main rivers where inland water transport are important are the Rhine and Dambe in Europe, the Zaire in Africa, the Nile in Africa, the Lower Niger in Nigeria. Other are also included such as the St Lawrence in Canada and the Mississippi in USA etc. Canals are mostly built to link up two navigable Seas or Oceans. For instance, the Suez Canal which links the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea and the Panama Canal which links the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.

Ocean WaterTransport

Ocean waterways carry a lot of the worlds trade, majority of the bulky goods, materials and passengers pass through ocean waterways from one country to another at the cheapest cost. Various forms of vessels sail in the high seas. Some of these vessels include:

  1. The passenger Liners: these vessels carry mainly passengers, mails and highly valued goods. However, these types of vessel operate on schedules routes.
  2. The Cargo Liner: these vessels combined freight with passengers; they also keep to scheduled routes like the passenger liners. Cargo liners are well suited for the transportation of perishable goods because of the provision of in built refrigerators in most of them.
  3. Tramps: these are other kinds of vessels used in high areas, they are dependent cargo boats that have no scheduled time and place. These vessels only sail when they have enough cargo to carry. Tramps are only designed for carrying goods.
  4. Oil Tankers and refrigerated Ships: these vessels are only designed for carrying oil and perishable goods such as fish, meat, dairy products and wines.

 

Reference:

1.http://www.jotscroll.com/forums/3/posts/197/water-transport-definition-types-advantages-and-disadvantages.html

2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_transportation

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